More subtle or indirect behaviours, if frequently repeated over an extended period, may also amount to bullying. This is known as indirect bullying.
Sometimes indirect bullying presents itself in the form of upwards bullying. Upwards bullying occurs when an employee or a group of employees pursue a campaign of bullying against their manager or supervisor. The bully is likely to be oppositional towards authority, which means they oppose the views, aims or wishes of authority figures on principle.
This type of bullying is difficult for managers to deal with because the perpetrators may in fact try to disguise themselves as the victims.
In circumstances where this kind of upwards bullying arises it is important that managers and business owners closely adhere to their own policies and procedures in dealing with the issue swiftly.